University of Pittsburgh, Fall Term 1998
Ben Eggleston, Instructor
Philosophy 0300—CRN 35193: Introduction to Ethics
mailbox: CL 1001—office: CL 1428E
Thursdays, 5:45 p.m. to 8:10 p.m., in CL 142
office hours: Tuesdays, 5:15–6:15, and Thursdays,
Locke, Second Treatise of Government
I. Background Information
John Locke was born in England in 1632 and studied philosophy and medicine
at Oxford. Through a chance encounter, he became a colleague of the politically
powerful Earl of Shaftesbury and took an active role in English public
affairs as a supporter of parliamentary limits on monarchical power. In
1683, after being involved in a failed four-year conspiracy against King
Charles II, Locke fled to Holland. In 1685, Charles was succeeded by James
II. An unpopular king, he in turn was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
of 1688 when Parliament invited his daughter, Mary, to reign as queen with
her husband, William, as king with the understanding that the English monarchs’
authority would be secondary to that of the people’s representatives in
Parliament. In 1689 Locke returned to England, publishing his Two Treatises
of Government a year later. He died in 1704.
The first half of Locke’s Two Treatises of Government
is an attack on the view advanced by Sir Robert Filmer in his book Patriarcha:
or The Natural Power of Kings, published in 1680. Filmer claimed the
authority of kings is unlimited, because it had been given to them by divine
decree: God originally gave Adam dominion over the entire world, and
God also intended for political power to be transmitted by inheritance.
With the assumption (which Filmer defended) that modern monarchs are (or
are believed to be) the heirs of Adam, it followed that the monarchs of
Filmer’s day had a divine claim to absolute power, with ctitizens having
no right to resist. But in the first of his two treatises, Locke argues
that Filmer’s view is fatally flawed in several respects, both theoretical
and practical, which Locke summarizes in the beginning of his second treatise.
In the rest of the latter treatise, Locke leaves Filmer behind and proceeds
to construct his own theory of political authority and obligation, using
arguments echoed nearly a century later by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration
for September 10:
II. Reading Assignment
- Locke’s “Preface”
- chapters I–VI
III. Study Questions
- In the “Preface,” what does Locke say he hopes to accomplish in the
- What is the only aim for which Locke says it’s permissible to use punishment
and other means of force?
- According to Locke, what is the main command of the law of nature?
- According to Locke, for what three specific purposes can a person punish
another for breaking the law of nature?
- In Locke’s view, are persons in the state of nature obligated to keep
- According to Locke, how does a person put himself or herself in a state
of war relative to another person?
- According to Locke, how does a person become a slave of another person?
- According to Locke, how does a person acquire private property without
getting the consent of other people?
- In Locke’s view, what in the law of nature limits the amount of possessions
that one can accumulate?
- What event does Locke say made it possible for people to accumulate
possessions in unlimited amounts without violating the law of nature?
- Why, according to Locke, are people lacking the use of reason not under
the law of nature?
- What is the basis of the power that Locke recognizes that parents have
over their children?
IV. Suggestions for Further Reading
- Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy: And Its Connection
with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the
Present Day (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945) (Hillman circulating
B72 R961), particularly book III, chapter XIV: “Locke’s Political
Philosophy” (pp. 617–40).
- Peter Laslett, “Introduction,” John Locke, Two Treatises of Government
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967) (Hillman circulating JC153
L814t 1967), pp. 1–120.
- J. W. Gough, John Locke’s Political Philosophy, second edition
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973) (Hillman circulating JC153 L87G68 1973).
- C. B. Macpherson, “Editor’s Introduction,” John Locke, Second Treatise
of Government (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1980) (Hillman
circulating JC153 L85 1980), pp. vii–xxi.
- John Dunn, Locke (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984) (Hillman
circulating B1297 D86 1984).
- Stephen Priest, The British Empiricists: Hobbes to Ayer (London:
Penguin Books, 1990) (Hillman circulating B816 P7 1990), particularly “Locke:
Politics,” pp. 100–03.
- Anthony Kenny, Oxford History of Western Philosophy (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1994) (Hillman reference B72 O8 1994b),
V. Outline of Topics to be Covered in Class
- Who was Locke?
- an Englishman
- a critic of Filmer
- introductory material
- chapter I: political power
- chapters II–VI: the law of nature explained
- the main idea of the law of nature
- enforcing the law of nature
- the state of war
- the state of nature
- the proviso
- parental power
for September 17:
VI. Reading Assignment
- chapters IX–XI
- chapter XIX, sections 211–231 and sections 240–243
VII. Study Questions
- According to Locke, what is the chief end of political society? What
features of the state of nature hinder the attainment of this end?
- Under what circumstances is it permissible to Locke to compromise a
person's property rights for purposes of taxation?
- According to Locke, is dissolving a society’s government essentially
the same thing dissolving the society itself?
- What legislative conduct does Locke think of as a violation of trust?
- What are Locke’s replies to the objection that his doctrine “lays a
ferment for frequent rebellion”?
- What is Locke’s defense of his claim that the people shall be the judge
of whether the prince or legislative acts contrary to trust?
VIII. Suggestions for Further Reading
See the suggestions for further reading for September 10, above.
IX. Outline of Topics to be Covered in Class
- chapters IX–XI: political society
- the “chief end” of political society
- forms of political society
- limits on legislative power
- chapter XIX: revolution
- revolution by procedural interruptions
- revolution by substantive offenses (i.e., violation of trust)
- Who shall be judge?